Saturday, September 9, 2017

Using Ball Mills in the Energy Industry


Experimental studies on coals of different metamorphic grades and various fractional states were conducted in 2000 by the Institute of Thermal Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, at experimental thermal energy facilities. These showed that fine-ground coal, milled to a particle size of 15-30 microns, develops a highly reactive property that is analogous to fuel oil - to which it can become an alternative. The experimental facility was rated at up to 1000 kW, and equipped for use with ultra-fine ground coal (produced with an ultra-fine ball mill); burning (pre-furnace and furnace equipment); a plasma system and gas starter for ignition and supplementary firing; combustion control (an automated post for combustion control) and cleaning (a vortex scrubber). The results produced in these experiments can be used to establish the parameters needed in technological facilities for ignition systems and supplementary burning using coal-dust boilers - a replacement fuel for gas and fuel-oil boilers.
The conclusions from these theoretical and experimental studies pointed to the technical and economic viability of using ultra-fine ground coal as a new oil-free technology for the ignition and stabilisation of combustion in coil-fired boilers at power plants, in addition to the ability to replace liquid fuels in boilers.
The primary technological facilities for making use of this new technology are: equipment for ultra-fine milling (ball mills), and the supplementary equipment for supplying and combustion of coal. Technical designs for the supplementary equipment have been developed, which are essential for wheeling-out the new technology (muffle furnace apparatus, input nozzles for the coal dust, accelerating devices for igniting the primary fuel mixtures, feeders for fuel discharge, hoppers for storage, and so forth). Factories able to manufacture the new supplementary equipment already exist in Russia. The last-mentioned also produces milling equipment, and specifically ball mills for ultra-fine milling processes.
This new technology is low-cost, with a short return-on-investment cycle which will hit break-even in no more than 2 to 3 years. The additional financing costs are in producing the ultra-fine ground coal (the purchase of ball mill machinery) - the additional machinery also has a short investment payback cycle due to the economics of the fuel supply industry.
The new Plasma-fuel technology has now passed the final stages of certification - for pilot industrial use. This allows assessment of the risks of the new technology - and if required, it can be further honed to optimise its operation prior to finalising the business case which can be put to potential investors.
Converting oil-fired boilers to run on ultra-fine ground coal
The primary task is moving to rejecting the use of fuel oil by the facility in future. Of course, in places where it is available, it makes sense to change to using natural gas. However, where this is not an available option, then such facilities can be converted to run on ultra-fine ground coal. The economic result of making the change from fuel oil to ultra-fine ground coal will be in the greatly reduced cost of fuel. Over and above this, there is an environmental gain to be made - since there will be a marked reduction in the emission of sulphurous oxides into the atmosphere. This has a further economic benefit, in terms of decreased payments to be made for such emissions.
When making the changeover to using ultra-fine coal, the issue of disposal of the ash waste which it produces needs to be addressed. For facilities currently using fuel oil, this can be problematic. In the first instance, this issue could be resolved by making agreements to remove the ash and slag waste from the boiler room to nearby ash dumps or industrial sites. This process could lead to a loss of some of the cost benefits of making the changeover. But in a more positive light, the ash and slag waste can be recycled as a component in the manufacture of construction industry materials, mineral components, and similar by-products. Installing a production line for the recycling of slag and ash is not only a responsible way of negating environmental pollution - but can similarly cull in economic benefits.
This means that the issue of converting oil-fired power stations to run on ultra-fine ground coal can be easily resolved both technically and administratively. Each individual case for conversion should properly be put through a business plan, including a technical survey of the boiler equipment, and the prevailing economic situation.
Evaluating the efficiency
Energy efficiency can be determined by making a comparison with the costs of fuel oil operation (i.e. the current costs), against the projected costs of transferring the facility's operation to ultra-fine coal (the current costs, plus the cost of additional equipment). To make these estimates for the current costs, it follows that the costs of the current in-purchasing of fuel oil should be compared against the costs of purchasing coal, plus the additional electricity costs incurred in the grinding process. Particularly concerned with this latter cost, it pays to consider the choice of grinding machinery in the light of its electrical consumption costs. It makes obvious sense to purchase machinery with the lowest energy operating costs. Furthermore, when weighing up the decision to switch from fuel oil to ultra-fine coal, the operation of installing the additional equipment needed for ignition of the ultra-fine coal must be carefully considered.
Essential equipment:
The ball mill for grinding ultra-fine coal is essential. This kind of coal-grinding apparatus to create combustible fuel is traditionally divided into several categories. Quiet-Operation Slow Ball Mills operate with a rotation speed of 16-23 revs per minute. Fast-Action Tangential Mallet Mills have an operational speed of 590 to 980 revs per minute; and there are also Medium Roller Mills which rotate at 40 to 78 revs per minute. The table of ultra-fine coal dust obtained is below, depending upon the type of machinery chosen.
  • Ball drum mills are used for grinding anthracite and bituminous coal with a milling operational range of ≤ 1.1 and low volatility required fine grinding (6... 7 %). If the raw source material to be milled includes some presence of pyrite sulfur fuel ( up to SP > 6 % ) then only ball mills can be used.
  • Hammer mills are used for brown and black coal of relatively high volatility (Vg > 30 % ).
  • Medium Roller Mills are used for grinding coals with a milling operational range of at least 1.1 Wp and humidity of no more than 16 %, with an ash content of no more than Ar 30 %
Additional Equipment required for producing the ultra-fine coal fuel:
  • crusher
  • crushed coal bunker
  • coal feeder
  • high-pressure fan
  • coil-dust burner
  • muffle furnace extension
  • blowing fan
  • milling shelf
  • cyclone dust collector
The primary rationale for undertaking the technical changeover is to replace expensive and increasingly-scarce fuel oil - traditionally used for the ignition and stabilisation of combustion in coal-fired thermal plant boilers - and also to replace liquid fuel oil in boilers. Issues of economic efficiency in tandem with environmental responsibility should underlie decisions for making the changeover. Coal combustion can make up part or the whole of the combustion process in combination with other resources, and offers enhanced productivity for boiler equipment along with reductions in fuel consumption when producing energy through combustion processes, along with an improved level of cleanliness and purification in the resulting flue gases.
The Strommashina plant in Samara produces and installs all of the above-mentioned and recommended kinds of ballmill and mill machinery - as well as dryers, crushers, feeders, cyclones and separators. Strommashina has been producing reliable power generating machinery since 1942. Over that time, the corporation has been continuously honing its technology and quality control - thus resulting in Strommashina's appearance on the world market for industrial equipment. The company's specialist staff are on hand to offer their advice in designing and purchasing equipment, as well as providing expert technical advice and support at every stage of the design, set-up, inception and operation of the equipment they produce.
Strommashina's Strong Points
  • Geographical convenience - Samara is a big transportation hub located in the middle of Eurasia. The railway sidings are part of Strommashina's Plant infrastructure. River port accessibility provides ease of connectivity to Europe and Central Asia.
  • Installation supervision (comprehensive control over how equipment and production lines are installed and commissioned)
  • 1 + year warranty
Have a question or need a quote? Please, feel free to Contact us!
Strommashina Corp.
22 Partsyezda st., 10a, Samara, Samara Oblast, Russia, 443022
Tel: +7 (846) 374-1741

Coal Power Plant


Coal power plant is a power plant that uses coal as fuel. The working principle of coal power plant is a coal-yard of Coal will be transferred by using a belt conveyor to the coal bunker. Coal from the coal bunkers will be destroyed in the Pulverizer so it becomes very soft powder. From Pulverizer then circulate to the burner on the boiler, in this area will be combustion burner and will heat the tubes in the boiler. Due to this heating water in a tube going up above the boiling point to produce steam, then steam is used to drive turbines that function to produce mechanical energy to drive the generator. In this generator of electrical energy generated by the principle of changes in the lines of magnetic force.
For the water-steam cycle usually use a closed cycle in which water used to produce steam main is the same water that the Circulate and continue to be used for the next cycle, it is only necessary to add water (makeup water) when the volume of water is less than set point her.
Water used is treated seawater using MED (Multi Effect Desalination) into fresh water. Furthermore, the water is purified through a process of filtration and ion exchange system through Water Treatment Plant equipment. Pure water that has been processed through the Water Treatment Plant is channeled into the water charging system boilers. The process begins with the initial combustion in the boiler where to start burning fuel oil used as fuel, but when the load has reached 30% then the furnace is hot enough and began to include coal as fuel until the load reaches 100%. After the temperature in the boiler has sufficient fuel oil to be replaced with coal.
Water will be pumped using a Boiler Feed Pump (BFP) through Economizer then subsequently taken to the Steam Drum. In the steam drum is separated between the steam and water. Fluid which still has a liquid phase is circulated through Wall Tube to be heated which is then channeled back to the Steam Drum. Vapor phase in Steam Drum channeled toward primary superheater and then proceed to the Platen superheater and Secondary superheater. After going through the superheater, the superheat steam flow to the High Pressure Turbine (HP Turbine) to be expanded. After experiencing an expansion in the turbine the steam pressure and temperature will decrease the output of the turbine so it needs to reheat. Performed in Reheater reheating.
From Reheater, steam will be entering the Intermediate Pressure Turbine (Turbine IP) and then proceed to the Low Pressure Turbine (Turbine LP). At Turbine energy change of thermal energy that brought steam into mechanical energy. Mechanical energy in the form of round rotor is used to drive turbine generators. In the generator mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.
Steam coming out of the LP turbine and then condensed in the condenser with seawater as cooling water medium. Therefore, the vapor condenses on the output conditioning condenser in order fluid material unless the state of saturated liquid minimal. Charging system of water into the boiler from the condenser is pumped by Condensate Pump streamed to Deaerator, where water that has been entered will first be passed Condensate Polishing Plant and heating low pressure Low Pressure Heater channeled toward Deaerator.
In Deaerator separated O2 and other non-condensable Gases. Water that has undergone a process deaerasi is accommodated in a Storage Tank to be channeled into the boilers at the next cycle by using the Boiler Feed Pump.
Water is pumped to the boiler filler Boiler Feed Pump for the first flow is passed High Pressure Heater and economizer to heat the water entering the boiler at or commonly known as preheater before entering the steam drum. Deaerator and high pressure heating gets heat from steam turbines or retrieval (Extraction Steam Turbine). As for the economizer is getting heat from boiler flue gas remaining after heating the superheater. After water vapor from the economizer and water will be accommodated in the steam drum.
This cycle will always be repeated endlessly (closed cycle), although repetitive but still need the addition of more water from the Water Treatment Plant to the condenser for the looping of water due to evaporation of water leaks and steam heat in the heating process or also the reduction of water by blowdown system.

A Guide on Industrial Fans


Industrial fans provide high static pressure. These fans can blow out stagnant air in wide areas and recirculate that air. Because of that, they are often used in areas where the following issues occur often:
  • stagnant air
  • heat stratification
  • dampness
How do Industrial Fans Work?
Most industrial fans utilize the same technology that one would find in any portable fan. A blade forces air to move alongside a shaft. The blades rotate around that shaft. This produces a wind chill effect. Industrial fans, however, are usually larger and more durable. They are often equipped with stronger motors so that they are not as loud.
Why Buy an Industrial Fan?
Industrial workplaces include:
  • warehouses
  • factories
  • plants
  • distribution centers etc.
Such large places can become absolutely miserable as they hit extreme temperature levels. This, of course, creates a much larger power bill but is also very uncomfortable for workers. It is a not a happy, healthy and safe work environment when it is too hot or the air is stagnant. This has to do with thermal comfort, which greatly affects people's motivation and ability to work.
What is Thermal Comfort?
Thermal comfort is whether someone feels too hot or too cold. A lot of factors can affect this. It can have to do with personal issues, personal health, psychological factors or environmental factors.
What Are the Different Types of Industrial Fans?
Industrial Blowers: They are large and can cool and ventilate vast areas. They are lightweight and often come fully assembled. They are used in commercial setting, on farms, or other large places where people work.
Industrial Wall Fans: There are lots of reasons to buy an industrial wall fan. They are inexpensive, installation is a snap and they can be attached just about anywhere. They are best when used for concentrated cooling.
Industrial Floor Fans: Floor fans are free-standing units that are placed at floor level. They offer powerful airflow and are great for concentrated cooling. They are also very easy to move and are light. They often come equipped with carrying handles to make moving them around even more of a snap.
Industrial Pedestal Fans: Pedestal fans produce strong airflow but can be used in spots that cannot accommodate mounted fans. They come fully assembled. These fans are elevated on a high mount so they are great for cooling higher areas. They often come with adjustable heights. They are extremely adaptable.
Industrial Ceiling Fans: Industrial ceiling fans are much like residential ceiling fans. As one can guess, they are mounted to the ceiling. They are usually, however, built for function while design takes a backseat. They are quite utilitarian. You will often see them with steel guard enclosures around them and they are often much more powerful. However, many ceiling fan brands, including Westinghouse make industrial ceiling fans that are both beautiful and functional. You will need to mount this type of fan so be prepared to do that by reading our step by step instructions on how to install a ceiling fan.
Misting Fans: This type of fan works well in areas that lack central air conditioning. They can also be a great substitute when standard fans just aren't cutting it. However, they are not ideal for very large spaces. Misting fans are industrial fans which deliver fine streams of mist which cool and refresh the room and the people in it. They also help to settle dust particles which can plague industrial environments.
Five Reasons Why You Should Purchase an Industrial Fan:
  1. They are economical and cost effective.
  2. They are very powerful.
  3. They are easy to install and are often portable.
  4. They are great for creating a pleasant work environment. That means better morale and productivity amongst workers.
  5. They circulate air and make the workspace cleaner, healthier and safer.

Tuesday, June 27, 2017

High Efficiency Boilers Save Money on Heating Bills By Ramanathan Gangadharan

There are many types of boilers available to meet your hot water and household heating requirements. Generally, conventional boilers are only about 55% to 65% efficient, making heating your home one of the biggest expenses you incur every year as a homeowner. The best way to save money on your heating bills is by purchasing a condensing boiler.
These highly efficient heating systems are designed with performance, reliability, and quality in mind, and have an efficiency rating of over 90%, helping you to save over one-third of your annual heating expenses. Top manufacturers of heating equipment in Europe offer an entire collection of heating systems that are designed to save you money while meeting all of your hot water and home heating needs. There are a wide variety of types from which you can choose, including system boilers, combination boilers, and open vent boilers. Having any one of these types of heating systems will help you heat your home efficiently, saving you money in the process.
System boilers
One type of condensing boiler that you might be interested in purchasing is a System boiler. System boilers provide hot water heating as well as central heating for your home through the use of a storage cylinder that is housed inside an airing cupboard. This type of heating system is frequently referred to as a "sealed system boiler." These heating systems do not require a separate water tank in your attic. This quality makes it the most compact system ever developed. These sealed system boilers are just the thing needed for any type of home, from one-bedroom flats to houses with several bedrooms and bathrooms.
Combination boilers
Combination boilers are another type of condensing boiler that is becoming a widely popular method of heating homes in Great Britain. This type of heating system makes up over 50% of all new boiler systems installed in UK homes every year. Just like system boilers, condensing combination boilers do not require either a cold-water tank or a hot water cylinder, which goes a long way towards minimizing the amount of space that is required for their installation. Several boiler manufacturers offer a large variety of combination boilers and you will easily be able to find one that is perfect for the size of your home.
Open vent boilers
Another type of condensing boiler that offers a great option for heating your home is the open vent boiler. These compact boilers are perfect for use with conventional open-vented home heating systems. Like the system boilers and combination boilers, the compact open vent boilers do not require a separate water tank, and they are available with several different options for heating heat output.
These are just some of the types of heating systems available to heat your home in an efficient manner. The choice is yours. Regardless of which type of condensing boiler you choose, high-efficiency boilers will help you meet all of your hot water and home heating needs without costing you a lot of money.
Want to know more information about different types of Boilers? Visit us and find a great range of Boilers.

Methods of Improving Boiler Efficiency By Thomas Yoon

With the rising cost of fuel prices, industries that use steam boilers for heating or power generation are hard pressed to operate at peak efficiencies.
While steam consumption, leakages, and other heat transmission losses can contribute to the overall energy bill, this article focuses on the heart of the steam generator - the boiler.
Controlling the boiler is of utmost importance in any steam generation energy saving program. Below are some ways to improve boiler efficiencies:
  • Reducing excess air
  • Installing economizer
  • Reducing scale and deposits
  • Reducing blow down
  • Recovering waste heat from blow down
  • Stopping dynamic operation
  • Reducing boiler pressure
  • Operating at peak efficiency
  • Preheating combustion air
  • Switching from steam to air atomization
  • Switching to lower cost fuel
Reducing Excess Air
By far the most common reason for energy inefficiencies in a boiler can be attributed to the use of excess air during combustion at the burners. When there is more air than is required for combustion, the extra air becomes heated up and is finally discharged out to the atmosphere. However, there are reasons for putting in some extra air for combustion - to compensate for imperfect burner fuel-air mixing conditions, air density changes, control system "slop", burner maintenance, fuel composition and viscosity variation, and imperfect atomizing steam or air controls for burners.
Adjusting the fuel-air ratio for combustion can be quite tricky. If the fuel is too much as compared to the air, incomplete combustion occurs. This will give rise to carbon soot deposits inside the combustion chamber or even over the boiler tubes.
The consequences of having soot deposits over the heat transfer surfaces and the potential of having explosive flue gases inside the boiler are much worst than losing a slight amount of energy through the exhaust stack. Therefore, many boiler operators choose to adjust their burners to be slightly on excess air.
Installing Economizer
This is only appropriate if there are insufficient heat transfer surfaces in the boiler. The economizer tubes may contain either circulating boiler water or circulating feed water. Because the temperature of the exhaust gases can be quite high, the economizer tubes may be fitted with safety valves to avoid over-pressure damage. Also temperature control of feed water is required to prevent pump airlock. To avoid corrosion, careful design is needed to ensure that the exhaust flue gas temperature does not drop below the dew point.
Reducing Scale and Deposits
For any boiler operation, this is a must. The safety of the boiler is at stake. Any scale or deposits will lead to reduced heat transfer that will eventually lead to overheating, reduction of mechanical strength of the steel and finally to bursting.
This should already be in the normal daily procedure of boiler operation.
Reducing Blow down
Blow down of boiler water is discharging hot water into the drains. However, blow down is necessary to maintain the boiler water concentration of dissolved solids that are necessary for conditioning the boiler water. The dissolved solids are necessary for preventing boiler corrosion and scaling.
As steam is generated from the evaporation of water, the remaining water in the boiler becomes more and more concentrated. This must be drained away during blow down.
The challenge is to control the draining to the minimum.
Recovering Waste Heat from Blow down
Since it is necessary to blow down to control the total dissolved solids in the boiler water, methods can be adopted to recover back some of the heat from the drained hot water.
Blow down tanks, heat exchanger tubes and pumping arrangements can be fabricated to recover some of the heat back into the boiler.
Stopping Dynamic Operation
Whenever a boiler starts or stops, a few minutes are spent running the forced draft fan for purging the combustion chamber of unburnt gases. This is a necessary step for the safe operation of a boiler.
During this time the heat from the boiler water in the shell or tubes will be lost to the purging air.
To avoid this type of losses, it is better to maintain a steady firing condition in the boilers.
Reducing Boiler Pressure
By reducing the boiler pressure, some of the heat losses through leakages or transmission may be reduced slightly. However there can be problems with the boiler with reduced pressure. The boiler circulation may be upset and the steam lines may have insufficient capacity and flow to transport the low pressure steam.
Operating at Peak Efficiency
When operating two or more boilers, improved efficiency can sometimes be obtained by unequal sharing of the load so that the combined load operates at peak efficiency.
Preheating Combustion Air
Any heat loss from the skin of the boiler to the boiler room can be utilized back for combustion. By preheating the intake air the combustion in the furnace becomes more efficient.
Switching from Steam to Air Atomization
For burners with steam atomization, switching to air atomization will naturally result in less steam consumption overall and better boiler efficiencies. This is only applicable for heavy fuel oil burners.
Switching to Lower Cost Fuel
When comparing natural gas and fuel oil, if the cost is the same or more per BTU delivered, switch over to fuel oil.
The reason for this is that in the combustion process, hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water. The latent heat of vaporization is lost when water vapor leaves the boiler stack.
Fuels like natural gas with higher hydrogen to carbon ratio will lose this heat more than those with lower hydrogen-carbon ratio like fuel oil.
However one must also recognize that there will be increased maintenance, operating costs and greater need for more excess air in order to achieve complete combustion for fuel oil. In addition, soot deposits and incomplete combustion might also affect the overall costs.
Some of the ways mentioned above may not be feasible at all for your plant. Each of them may result in only a few percentage points of boiler efficiency improvement. However, if carried out carefully and with the proper tools and instruments, they do add up to huge savings.
Many years of working experience in Marine, Facilities, Construction has given the author material for writing e-books and articles related to engineering, and management. Subscribe to facworld ezine
More information at Marine Engineer and M & E Engineer []

Saturday, June 3, 2017

Old shipping containers to build exciting and creative homes for a fraction of the price of building a home using conventional methods.

The idea is to build a home from an old
shipping container.

You might be wondering, “Why on Earth use
an old shipping container to build a home?”


Afford-ability: Building a container home is 
extremely cost effective. If you've already looked into 
the cost of new or second hand container you 
obviously know what I mean. 
Design: You can easily modify shipping 
container to create a modern sleek look. 

Strength: Shipping containers are built 
extremely strong with few weak points 
making them a great starting point. 
Time: Because the majority of the home 
is already built you can have a complete 
home built in record time. 
Unique: Even though container homes are 
on the rise they are still unique and will 
stand out from every other home. 
Green: Recycling an old shipping container 
and using it to build with is a great green
idea and many others will see the important 
example you're setting.  
As you can see, there are many benefits!

Containers make the perfect holiday home
for a fraction of the cost of a regular home.

Basically, once you have the container in place, 
you’re ready for the fit out!

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Reconditioning old batteries is a great way to help the environment.

How you can make thousands by purchasing old batteries and selling them as reconditioned ones for massive profits.

Li-ion: The Battery Of Choice!

The trend of battery-powered laptops and other portable equipment becoming smaller and more power hungry led to the creation of lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries. The electrodes used in these batteries are made of lightweight lithium and carbon, making them compact and lightweight. They offer a far better performance when compared to the more traditional rechargeable batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries often used in laptops are different from primary lithium batteries used in cameras. Li-ion technology was introduced in 1990 and has over the years emerged as a superior source of power for a variety of applications. With the demand and growth of the electronic consumer market, Li-ion batteries have witnessed unprecedented popularity, and are used in laptops, iPhones, iPods, PDAs and other electronic equipment.
It is energy density that determines the size and weight of batteries. The idea is to minimize both the weight and size of the portable equipment for today’s market, and Li-ion batteries give designers this ability, with their significantly better volumetric energy density. These batteries are not only used in consumer electronics, but also in aerospace, defense and automotive applications were high energy density is used.
Since Li-ion cells have a much higher operating voltage than others, fewer cells are needed to build a pack, thus reducing the battery assembly costs and increasing reliability.
There is no one reason for their huge acceptance in the rapidly growing market. The numerous benefits include higher energy density, better cycle life, higher voltage per cell, great low temperature performance, simple battery management, slower self discharge when not in use – about 5% in a month, easy to charge as well as being environmental friendly too.
One of the main benefits of lithium-ion batteries is the fact that they have no “memory effect,” which means they do not have to be completely discharged before they are recharged, like so many other batteries. The batteries also stay new for a long time and can take hundreds of charge and discharge cycles.
Li-ion batteries are also easy to use in all sorts of devices because they can be created in different shapes and sizes.
Having talked about all the positive features about Li-ion batteries, one cannot help but wonder if anything can be so perfect. Well, the only flaw that has been found is their ability to burst into flames – very rarely, perhaps a couple of battery packs in a million.
Li-ion batteries are the most energetic and powerful batteries around, and one cannot go wrong using them, and the lack of memory effect makes them all the more attractive to consumers.

Easy Techniques To Improve Battery Life!

All batteries will fail at some point, when they have been in use for longer periods of time. But premature battery failure is one of the main frustrations people face.
Common thinking is that turning devices off extends battery life, but what happens is the opposite. Devices consume more power when they are starting up, so turning them off is not such a good idea if they are going to be switched on frequently.
Cars and Other Automobiles
It is important to protect the car battery from high under the hood temperatures with the use of a case or a heat shield. The battery life can be extended by keeping the battery charged at all times. Electrolyte levels will have to be checked frequently during the hot months. A recent study revealed that relocating the battery outside the engine compartment has increased its life by almost eight months. Car manufacturers are relocating the starting battery to the passenger compartment or the trunk to avoid under the hood temperatures. It also helps to use wet batteries vented to the outside or cells that do not produce gas when recharged. Based on the driving of each individual, some batteries are undercharged and this leads to sulfation, where lead sulfate gets accumulated, reducing the battery capacity. An external battery can be used for charging.
For any battery, the most important factor to consider is the temperature. Ensuring they are not exposed to too much heat can extend the life of a battery. It is common sense that high temperatures lead to faster chemical reactions. They need to be watered more often with only deionized or demineralized water. However, rain water is a good substitute in an emergency. In addition to the temperature, a reduction in the number of discharge/charge cycles significantly improves battery service life. In extremely cold climates, the car battery needs to be continuously kept fully charged when not in use.
Portable Electronic Devices
Battery life can be increased for iPods, cell phones, laptops etc. by lowering the brightness when not necessary. For example, when using these devices in a dark room, it is not necessary to set the brightness to 100%. The brightness can be lowered enough so that the screen can be seen without exerting any strain on the eyes can be done. The amount of time the backlight stays on can also be decreased. For iPods it doesn’t have to stay on for 10 seconds, 2 seconds should be good enough. Laptops can be set in hibernate mode when not in use.
One most important point that not many people are aware of is that turning down the volume increases battery life. Use headphones that are louder and leave the volume at 50%.
Background applications are power hungry monsters. Stop everything that is not being used. Defragmenting the hard drive once in a while helps decrease file scatter on the hard drive and uses up less power. Send the computer into standby mode after a certain period of inactivity as it conserves battery. Although, standby resume also uses some power but not as much as starting up. Interestingly, leaving a CD or DVD in the drive can decrease battery life, as it hogs power whenever the drive spins up.
In Wi-Fi Applications
Battery life in Wi-Fi apps can be prolonged by either increasing battery capacity or reducing Wi-Fi product power consumption and through control methods. It is easy to increase battery capacity; however, due to technological limits, it may lead to an increase in cost and size of the battery. That brings us to the option of reducing power consumption, which can be done by prolonging the standby time and shortening the time of the active cycle. You can also turn off the WiFi on the iPod when not in use as it consumes a large amount of life.
These techniques of low power consumption can improve battery life dramatically. Most of them are common sense usage techniques and can easily be made part of our daily lives.

What Makes Ni-Cd Rechargeable Battery Popular!

Nickel-Cadmium or the Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries are a type of alkaline storage battery, classified as a secondary battery. As the name suggests, they are made from two chemical elements, nickel hydroxide, cadmium and an alkaline electrolyte, which is usually a solution of Potassium Hydroxide.
Invented in I899 by Waldemar Jungner of Sweden, their practical application was only made possible after 50 years, with the development of the sealed battery by Frenchman, Neumann.
The Ni-Cd batteries are used in a variety of applications all over the world. They comprise of a positive electrode plate that uses nickel hydroxide as the main material, and a negative electrode plate that uses cadmium compound as the main active material.
There are two varieties of Ni-Cd batteries: sealed and vented. The smaller sealed variety is used in toys and other portable electronics. Specialty Ni-Cd batteries are used in wireless and cordless telephones, old motherboards, laptops cell phones and other applications. These batteries can supply high surge currents making them perfect for use in remote-controlled cars, boats, airplanes, camera flash units etc.
When compared to other rechargeable batteries, Ni-Cd is beneficial in many ways. They are strong and cannot be damaged easily, with the ability to withstand deep discharges for longer periods. They also have more endurance to the charge and discharge cycles. These batteries are lightweight and smaller even when compared to the lead-acid battery, making them a preferred choice in aircrafts where size and weight are crucial factors.
However, there is one drawback, if you can call it that. Ni-Cd are known for their “memory effect.” Memory effect is when batteries “think” that they are fully charged even when they are not. If your battery is about 80% charged, it thinks it is 100% charged, and due to this thinking, does not charge any further even when placed on the charger. The problem is that when gadgets with Ni-Cd batteries are used, they last for a shorter time because of being charged less. This problem mostly affects older batteries and not the brand new ones. However, there is a solution to this memory effect – that of performing a “full recharge cycle,” which is to let the gadget discharge completely before recharging it again. For example, recharge only when your cell phone starts beeping.
Now that the memory effect has been taken care of, let us look at some more benefits of Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries. They can be used for as many as 500 full recharge cycles, which is on the higher side. The charge is also retained for a longer time when not in use. Losing only 1% of charge per day takes almost four months for the battery to be completely discharged.
In spite of the Ni-Cd batteries costing more, having slightly lower voltage and the memory effect; their demand has not diminished because they have a significantly longer total lifetime than alkaline cells, which is what consumers look for when buying batteries – a long lasting battery.

Ni-MH: The Long Life Battery!

For today’s lifestyles, the most important attribute to consider is mobility. Advanced electronic devices such as portable computers and cell phones allow people to perform much more effectively than ever before. With mobility comes the increased need for portable power sources.
Fortunately, this advancement in electronics is matched with improvements in batteries that power these devices. Ni-MH batteries provide much more power than the Ni-Cd batteries and also eliminate any concerns on the usage of heavy metals in the making of these cells. The exciting new technology used in the sealed Ni-MH rechargeable batteries provides optimum results for battery-powered devices, in terms of performance and environmental friendliness.
Introduced to the commercial market in 1988, the Ni-MH battery is still at an early stage of maturity, but has already proven to be an attractive power source for today’s devices.
There are several benefits of Ni-MH batteries, such as a higher energy density, which is almost 40% more than the nickel-cadmium batteries. This increase in energy density helps with providing longer run times, which means longer service life than ordinary batteries of the same size. They also charge much faster, in approximately one hour. They are safe to use and designed to withstand a variety of abusive conditions in consumer devices. Unlike the Ni-Cd batteries and other battery systems, they are environmental friendly, as there is no fear of cadmium, mercury or lead toxicity.
Today, the Ni-MH battery is hugely popular with high-end portable electronic devices where the performance of the battery translates into run-time, which is a major consideration for a consumer and influences their decision in the purchase of product. The reduced weight and volume also play an important role.
Ni-MH batteries are similar to Ni-Cd batteries as they use the same technology. The only difference is that they use hydrogen-absorbing negative electrode instead of the cadmium-based electrode used in Ni-Cd. This small change increases the electrical capacity of the battery as well as eliminates the toxicity problem. The problem of “memory” does not exist in the Ni-MH batteries, as there is no cadmium used.
These batteries are designed to ensure maximum safety with a safety vent, to avoid build up of pressure in case of being exposed to high temperature, charged excessively or abused in other ways. They can also be used in any position and the only maintenance that is needed is to keep them dry and clean while in use as well as in storage. Whether stored when charged or discharged, nothing happens to these batteries.

The Benefits Of Lead-Acid Batteries!

Lead-acid batteries or “starting batteries,” as they are also called, are the oldest rechargeable batteries in existence and the first used for commercial use. They have dominated the market for over 100 years, ever since their invention in the 1850s by Gaston Plante, a French engineer, and continue to weave their magic to this day. The surge of new batteries in the market has not lessened their importance.
Today, lead-acid are cost-effective and their ability to supply high surge currents, makes them the most viable option for use in cars and other motor vehicles, as they meet the requirement of the high current that automobile starter motors need.
Car batteries are used to start diesel or gasoline engines, as they provide the electricity needed for starter motors, ignition, lights and other electronic features. Most of the car batteries are lead-acid batteries and the energy is produced through a chemical process that involves lead, lead oxide and a liquid electrolyte solution. Plates of lead and lead oxide sit in the electrolyte solution that is made up of a small percentage of sulfuric acid and more of water. This causes a chemical reaction and electrons are released, which are all routed through conductors in the battery to generate the electricity needed for the car.
When lead batteries are discharged, sulfuric acid forms on the lead plates, and when they are recharged again, this sulfuric acid on the plates breaks back into its constituent lead and lead oxide.
Some car batteries need maintenance in the form of adding water. It was during the 1970s that maintenance-free sealed lead-acid batteries were developed and they can be used in any position, sideways or upside down without the risk of acid leakage. The liquid electrolyte is gelled into separators and sealed. Safety valves are used to allow venting during charging, discharging and other atmospheric pressure changes.

Currently, there are two lead-acid systems used, the small sealed lead-acid (SLA) and the larger valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA).
The newer type of sealed lead-acid batteries are the Absorbed Glass Mat batteries (AGM) that are maintenance free and the plates are mounted in such a way that they can withstand extensive vibration and shock. The hydrogen emission from cars using these batteries is less than 4% and self-discharge is extremely low at 1-3% per month. This gives them long storage before the need to recharge. These batteries are more expensive than the flooded lead-acid batteries (liquid electrolyte), but because of their durability, they are the preferred version for high performance cars rather than the flooded variety.
One of the best things about lead-acid batteries is their self-discharge, which is one of the best on rechargeable batteries at about 40% per year, in comparison with nickel-cadmium that self-discharges in three months.
In conclusion, lead-acid batteries are a perfect choice for cars as they are inexpensive, reliable and provide dependable service, durable when used appropriately, and they have the lowest self-discharge rate among rechargeable batteries.

Electrostatic Precipitators for Pollution control

Electrostatic Precipitators for Pollution control